Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Moody’s Consider Changing South Africa’s Rating Outlook
BUSINESS REPORT
16 AUGUST 2017, 11:11AM
KABELO KHUMALO

The agency said the trajectory of the rating will depend on government's success in safeguarding South Africa’s institutional and economic strength.

Rating agency Moody’s today said it would consider changing South Africa’s rating outlook from negative to stable if the government were to implement policies and reforms that indicated the continued independence and strength of South Africa’s policy institutions.

The rating agency says that the future trajectory of the rating will depend on the government's success in safeguarding South Africa’s institutional, economic and fiscal strength.

“Indications that the strength and independence of the country’s institutions have diminished to a greater extent than in Moody’s baseline scenario, or that the emerging policy framework has become even less predictable or has shifted in a way likely to undermine economic or fiscal strength, could lead to a further downgrade,” Moody’s says.

Also read: Rand stays firm as downgrade fears diminish

Moody's has South Africa's long-term foreign and local currency debt ratings at Baa3, with a negative outlook. It is the only rating agency that has South Africa’s foreign-currency and rand-denominated debt at investment grade.

On Friday Moody’s Investor Services did not publish a rating review of South Africa as was widely anticipated, with the agency saying that South Africa has not had any real major events that would require a review.

The agency said the trajectory of the rating will depend on government's success in safeguarding South Africa’s institutional and economic strength.

Moody’s says that a decline in the value of guarantees to state-owned enterprises would also be credit positive.

“Further delays in growth enhancing reforms would be suggestive of such a shift.

Downward pressure could also develop if liquidity pressures begin to reemerge at state-owned enterprises that would elicit pronounced government intervention, be it through the activation of guarantees or other measures.”

Last month the National Treasury announced that it will give South African Airways (SAA) a financial bailout to allow the airline to settle its R2.3bn debt with Standard Chartered Bank.
Here's What Could Trigger Another Downgrade in South Africa
16 August 2017 - 11:34
South Africa Sunday Times
BY SUNITA MENON

While Moody’s did not publish a ratings decision on South Africa last week as scheduled‚ the credit rating agency has warned of the possible issues that could lead to another downgrade.

In June Moody's cut South Africa's debt by a single notch to Baa3‚ one level above subinvestment‚ with a negative outlook after the cabinet reshuffle which saw President Jacob Zuma fire former Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan and his deputy Mcebisi Jonas.

Last week‚ Moody's said there have been no major events to warrant a ratings review for South Africa.

The Credit Rating agency will downgrade South Africa again if the government does not safeguard the country's institutional‚ economic and fiscal strength.

Political tensions in the ruling African National Congress will weigh on South Africa's growth, ratings agency Moody's said on Wednesday.

In a credit opinion released on Wednesday‚ Moody’s said: “Indications that the strength and independence of the country’s institutions have diminished to a greater extent than in Moody’s baseline scenario‚ or that the emerging policy framework has become even less predictable or has shifted in a way likely to undermine economic or fiscal strength‚ could lead to a further downgrade.”

It added that delays in reforms to stimulate growth would signify this shift and warned that guarantees to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) remained a concern.

Moody’s added‚ however‚ that it could change the rating outlook to stable if the government were to implement policies that “indicated the continued independence and strength of South Africa’s policy institutions‚ and which enhanced medium-term growth and achieved the planned stabilization in the government’s debt burden”.

It added that a decline in guarantees to SOEs would be “credit positive”.

- TimesLIVE/BusinessLIVE
Address on the UNIA-ACL by Marcus Garvey Delivered in Windsor-Ontario, Canada on 25 September 1937
Mr. Chairman, Rev. [Jackson], Sirs,
Senator [Charles C.] Diggs (2), Mr.
[William] Sherrill, Mr. [William] Wallace,
members and officers of the U.N.I.A.,
friends from America and from Canada
     
It is indeed inspiring to see and to receive the welcome that you have given me in this church in this remote city of our civilization.   I come to you with as much of gladness as you have come to see and to listen to me.   I may say, in short, that I am the same man you knew once (cheers).  I haven't changed one bit, except probably in size, and that is because I am growing older (laughter).  I have just passed my fiftieth birthday, so I am much older than when I met you fifteen years ago.  And, by the way, I went to jail from Detroit (3) (renewed laughter).  I am here on the same serious business, and I want to talk to you tonight very seriously, as I have always tried to do, because the situation is very serious and very dangerous.  You know of the U.N.I.A. in the old days, particularly from 1918-26.

You have followed its career: you know much about it because its propaganda was spreading far and wide, but probably you do not know of the real U.N.I.A., which you are going to see, not only in the United States and Canada, but all over the world.  Some of you thought the U.N.I.A. was a thing of the moment.  The U.N.I.A. shall be as long as the race lives, as long as the ages for the principles are fundamental.  The principles are founded upon a rock which prejudice cannot wash away or destroy, nor can injustice destroy.

I am just out of a Conference of that same organization that has a programme which is the second stage in the mighty work of the movement, a stage you know nothing of, because it was never reached [you].  Those of you who thought the U.N.I.A. was dead or is dead have made a terrible mistake.  It hasn't started to live its reality yet.  Things have had to happen [in t]he U.N.I.A. as to all movements of magnitude and s[igni]ficance as to the Church of Christ.  It started on Cal[var]y and had a hard time up here.  The time that we [a]re seeing in the U.N.I.A. is nothing to be compared with the time Christianity has had, days of blood, days of torture and crucifixion.  Mr. Sherrill pointed out that I have been persecuted, but you will not know the real U.N.I.A. until thousands also can be named who have been persecuted for the cause of righteousness.

The murders of the Church are many.  Not only Christ was murdered.  We cannot count the martyrs for they are numberless.  Some of us are a little cowardly otherwise probably I would not be here tonight, but Mr. Sherrill told you how we have been trained.  We have been out of our minds, not into our minds.  In fact, we are living for the convenience of other people.  I am to send back to you in America in another short while the first group of men and women who will be able to interpret to you the real U.N.I.A.
     
We held a Conference at Toronto from the 24th to the 31st August, which was attended by representatives from all sections of the United States, but among them were people who came from Canada and the United States to attend the summer school, which I am teaching there, from the 1st to the 31st September.   The purpose was to train U.N.I.A. leaders.  I have tried to train them and they are being well trained.  I am proud of them.  They will graduate on the 25th of this month.  They will be sent back to you.  I have given them all I know.  I am trying to make everyone a Marcus Garvey personified.  The new leadership of the U.N.I.A. shall be by and through men and women who have been particularly trained.  That is the new U.N.I.A.  I expect between now and the next Convention we will have at least trained men and women who will represent the U.N.I.A.  The course that these people are taking includes 42 subjects bearing on the scope and the work of the U.N.I.A.  Nothing has been left out.  It is a course known as African Philosophy.  The Philosophy that is particularly ours.  This present civilisation was intended for you so that you should be subservient to it.   It is a civilization backed up by philosophy that has been keenly and obediently postulated as to produce the best result for the particular people who postulate the philosophy.

Do not think that the civilisation you see to-day is an accident.   It was not built by chance.  It was constructed and built upon a system of philosophy that the originators tested and proved to be the best in the development of the particular civilization that they want.  You have fitted yourselves to it and do not realize how much a set of slaves you are.  You will understand what I mean when I say African Philosophy.

It is the peculiar and particular philosophy that is to emancipate you and me from the thraldom of other philosophers and these teachers shall go out and teach that philosophy as probably Socrates and Plato and Aristotle and more recent philosophers have taught.  When you and I go to college and read the text books we come out just good enough slaves intellectually and mentally to serve the masters.

The purpose of the U.N.I.A. is to emancipate and our primary duty is to emancipate your minds because it is the mind that makes the man, that directs him.  It is the mind that makes the man, the race; and all that you see material, artistic and otherwise of nature is man's mind working upon Nature.  What man has done man may do.  My position is always independent because I was made independent.  I wasn't made a Siamese twin but separate and distinct as a human unit, and I am appealing to all other Negro human units to think independently and then cooperatively, because as individuals created as such you must be a group separate and distinct as such.  I challenge any man to say that man is not man.

Man is the highest crea[ture] God made for this earth.  I am talking of man, [the] lord, the master, the sovereign, the king of life.   H[e is] but man irrespective of colour or race.  There is [some]thing fundamental and that is that man is a standar[d] creature irrespective of his colour and above whom there is no creature on earth but God, and God is not a creature but a creator.   We accept the theory and we have searched and looked around for millions of years and haven't discovered anything on this plane[t] higher yet than man.  He looks like you and me, and if you tickle him he laughs.  If you feed him he eats, if you starve him he dies, and if he doesn't get fresh air he stifles and dies.  We have looked upon him in all colours.  Even the great anthropologists cannot deny that man is man.   Then if the world is man's given by the Creator to be lord and master and king for his happiness[,] for his abode, what is the matter with the black man, why he isn't master, lord and king.  What is wrong?  We don't want any communist to tell us what is wrong.  We must tell the world what is wrong with ou[r] minds, because mind is master of the man.  As a man thinketh, so is he. (4)   We think for ourselves.

When we can no longer do this, we are absolute and positive slaves.  The black man, negro, coloured man, must think for himself without apology.  If you allow another man to think for you, you will follow him into the trap he has laid for you; because man is the most cruel creature walking on the face of the earth.  You must trust no man but yourself.  You must trust no race but your own.  The whole world is a spider's web.  Beware of the cobweb.  Do not walk into the parlour.  Stand on your own feet.  You are a man.  God made you individual man.  Hold your ground.  Lift your head and look only to a superior God but an equal man (cheers).  I am not telling you to hate anybody.   No; Love all mankind but love yourself first because mankind started with you.   You are sure you are the first man, therefore you are the first person to be considered.  Play the man yourself then we will have a united world of negro men (cheers).

Playing each and everyone his part as we have a united white world playing each and every man his part.  I am not criticising the white people.  In fact, I am criticising the black man.  I am a queer critic, but I am a logical one. Even God Almighty will justify and honour the white man for making use of the world and rebuke us for dealing with the world in our slipshod manner as he did the lazy virgins.

God never said he made you slave and servant, but made you lord and master, and if you allow the other fellow to rob you by letting you to look behind while he grabs when you are not looking, you must not blame God for your ignorance.  This world is yours, occupy it until God comes.  We occupy the world by a system of Government, by drawing lines and boundaries of demarcation.  There is nothing for you because you want nothing.   You are waiting until the Lord comes (cheers) when the Lord told you I will help those who help themselves. Ask the white man what he wants most and he will tell you national power, material power, the power to rule the world and dominate men.  What a difference is that from the Negro who only wants a piece of watermelon.

We of the U.N.I.A. are no watermelon babies.  We are men standing erect and looking God in the face and speaking as men.  When we talk of African redemption the watermelon Negro thinks we are mad, but the serious Negro understands.  Dr. Dubois [Du Bois] answered some years ago that he has lost nothing in Africa, but Mussolini has picked up a lot fifteen years after he said that. He made a war on the last sovereign state in Africa for the specific purpose - economic expansion for the Italian people and their industrial development.  The specific purpose - he never hid it at all.  He said Italy wanted raw materials.  He hadn't sufficient to satisfy the Italian people and therefore there was a country in Africa called Abyssinia that could supply these requisites and he was willing to spend some one hundred and twenty million pounds and throw into the risk two million Italian lives to possess that thing that Dr. Dubois said he never lost but which was worth so much to the Italians as to have lost so much in man power and in the national wealth of their country.  To-day they have made Abyssinia a thoroughfare from Somalia to Eritrea.
     
After nine months of occupation they have carried engineers, scientists, searching for sulphur, gold, coal, aluminum[,] for all the minerals that they are told could be found in Abyssinia to be added to the wealth of the Roman Empire.  Negroes are still hanging around looking for jobs.  I am sure I have never seen a more imitative people in all my life.  We are willing to imitate the white man in everything.  After years of labour, building streets and steamships and railways and expanding throughout the land, building his hundreds and thousands of cities he comes at a late hour saying he has nothing more to do.   He says we have no more to build because there are too many already.  The lazy Negro who hasn't laid one brick yet for his Cathedral, one tie for his railroad track, yet he says "I am unemployed."  Do you wonder after announcing that Mussolini got busy in Ethiopia so that the Italians can be employed.  The thing I have been telling you for fifteen years in America is now being used by the Italians whilst you and I settle here saying we are unemployed.  Do you know how the world is laughing at you and me[?]   It is all well to dress up but do you know why he takes himself away from you on the sidewalk, because he says here comes a good-for-nothing.  Anytime a Japanese comes in he wants to know what is in his mind but he hasn't to play diplomacy to the Negro[,] he just turns his back.
     
They kicked a bishop out of the Lobby of a Hotel in Edinburgh.  It was Bishop Hurd [William Heard]. (5)   The most respected men in England are Bishops.  The moment he shows that he is a Bishop he is respected by every Englishman but the moment a black Bishop stepped in they knew he had no Cathedral, they knew he was only imitating white people so they kicked him out. (laughter)

And as a fact the Bishop has no Cathedral.  They only elected him Bishop and every Bishop is supposed to have a Cathedral.  We are the world's laughingstock and we shall continue being so until we live like men, die like men.

You see how the Japanese do things, the Italians, the Germans, the English, except us.  Something must be wrong.  Then we better find out what is wrong before judgment comes, because if God finds us in this state he is going to find us in Hell. (laughter)  What have you to lay on the alt[a]r?  The Englishman will bring the British Empire, the Italian will bring the Roman Empire, the German will bring the German Empire, the Japanese will bring the Japanese Empire, the Australian will bring the Australian Commonwealth, the Indians will bring the Indian Empire.  The Negro will say "we have been watching and following them Lord.  We come Lord." (loud laughter).
     
Between you and God only stands the Angels and that mind of yours is God's mind.  I don't want to go into the Father Divine stuff but there is something about this Father Divine.  He is intelligent enough to know that there is a God in man and not in Father Divine particularly.  That God is what that scamp doesn't tell the people.  He is part of God and that is how that man is fooling those who are too foolish to understand the relationship between God and man.   Added to that spirit is the soul, a free soul, which the spirit of God always tries to direct.  The spirit of God is always good.  That spirit never dies and when you bow down that spirit before men you are debasing the spirit in you that is God because man was never intended to worship man but God.  I haven't time to develop these theories, to set you thinking and realizing your importance.  Every man is God walking on two feet.

There is no man more so than the other.  There is no man who can be so bad but he has the spirit of God in him.  Do not cringe before other men because God will be vexed with you.  I am not telling you in your limited intelligence to start being arrogant.  Get intelligence.  See that no man is more intelligent than you.  So long as one man is more intelligent than you he will be your superior.  Until you can produce what the white man has produced you will not be his equal.  When you have built your cities, your cathedrals and know that you did it on your own initiative no man will turn his back on you.  That is the philosophy taught in a nutshell by the U.N.I.A.

If you think anybody cares about you but yourself, that is in the absolute sense, you make a big mistake.  As of the individual so of the race.  If you think anybody thinks about your race you are deceiving yourself.  No one person is going to love you more than he loves himself.   He may say so every day until he gets what he wants.  When a man wants a girl he tells her all kinds of lies until he gets married and starts to beat her up.   There is no love, so out of your mother's children love yourself the best, and love your race the best.  It is not a crime because God made you that way.

Charity begins at home.  God told you to start loving at home.  You originally came from one common stock.  Adam and Eve were black people and something happened that changed the complexion of one of the children.  Somebody changed from you into somebody else. (laughter)

Something is wrong somewhere.  If you go into history properly you will find out that somebody has been lying somewhere.  Stand up for yourselves and for your race.  For God's sake stand up!  Don't let anybody tell you that you are made to stay down.  God could not damn you.  He is a God of love, absolute intelligence.  No ignorance, no fault in him.  Do not behave foolishly to want none of this world and God gave and made the world for man.  After God gave you the earth you said you did not want it, then complained about your bad condition.  God is absolute.  He does everything once and for all.  He made you and the world once and He isn't going to make you over again.  If God wanted you to be a white man he would have made you white.

What a rebellious people you are.  That is what Halle Selassie is saying[,] that in God's good time he will go back to Addis Ababa.   If he had got mustard gas and fought back he would be in a better position today.   When they started to shoot the Abysinians he ran and the next thing we heard was that the Emperor was in England.  Now he wants the Lord to carry him back and face the mustard gas for him.

Let us have some sense and know that the U.N.I.A. is going to carry the work on.  Your moral support, your financial support are necessary.   Other men have battered me down but I am not vexed with them.  I am vexed with you when you help them.  They want the whole world and God will help them to get it because God helps those who help themselves.  The best way to defeat your enemy is to give him a bad name, but surely I do not expect such reward or gratitude from you for whom I stand up.

If you hadn't helped them Halle Selassie would not have bee[n in] England to-day.  Italy never would have dared to [touc]h Abyssinia, because the Liberian scheme wou[ld h]ave been so far advanced that Mussolini would [have] been scared to touch a black kingdom, because [he] would have had an intellectual, political, scientific [p]ower that would have demanded respect from every man, but you lost your chance and Mussolini took it up and Hitler took it up.

The U.N.I.A. was before Mussolini and Hitler ever were heard of.  Mussolini and Hitler copied the programme of the U.N.I.A. - aggressive nationalism for the black man in Africa.  Communism is the same and Fascism is the same.  We hadn't the character to stand behind it but they adopted it.  When the world started to test you out and started to make a buffoon of me you shouted out a sad hurrah.

You revealed your weakness and the world climbed over you and we are still where we are.  Whether it is Garvey or somebody else, when you get bolder stand by it.  If you run away from it you will reveal your character and your weakness.  When one Chinese or Japanese goes down others go up.

We had Gandhi.  When he went off the scene [Jawaharlal] Nehru (6) came upon the scene and now Indians are controlling a large part of their own Government and the English have had to recognize their leadership.   I am expecting God to give us courage and strength to redeem our race.  At least you ought to have some confidence in your own.

Even the worst of your own is better than the best of the other.  The other man, however good he may be, he cannot see the common goodness between you.  It is a policy of your own.  There are books you have never seen.  It is African Philosophy not platonic philosophy.   It is going to be philosophy that will save this perishing race of ours.  God bless you! (cheers)

Reprinted from the publication the Black Man Vol. 2, no. 8 (December 1937): 10-12.

        1.   Windsor is an industrial city in southeastern Ontario, Canada, located on the Detroit River across from Detroit, Mich. (WNGD).
        2.  Charles C. Diggs (b. 1894) of Detroit was a Michigan state senator from the Third District.  Born in the South, his father was a missionary to Africa and his mother a school teacher in rural Mississippi and Louisiana.  Diggs was educated in Louisiana; married in Knoxville, Tenn.; and lived briefly in Detroit and Philadelphia before taking up permanent residence in Detroit.  A professional undertaker with a successful family funeral home business, Diggs was a civic leader and an officer of several benevolent organizations.   He was first elected to the State Senate on the Democratic ticket in 1936 and was re-elected in 1938.  His namesake, Charles C. Diggs (b. 1922), also became a Michigan state senator.  After beginning his political career on the state level, the younger Diggs was elected to U.S. Congress on the Democratic ticket in 1954.  He became a leading proponent of civil rights legislation and affirmative action (Michigan Official Directory and Legislative Manual [Detroit: State of Michigan, 1939-1940], p. 601; NA).
        3.  Garvey was in Detroit in February 1925 when he received news that his conviction on mail fraud charges had been upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals.  He returned by train to New York City, where he was arrested and removed by federal marshalls to Atlanta Federal Penitentiary to begin serving his sentence (see Garvey Papers 6: 87-88 n. 1, 92-93, 93-94).
        4.  A reference to "As he thinketh in his heart, so is he" (Prov, 23:7).
        5.  Bishop William Heard (b. 1850), religious leader, politician, and author, was born the son of slaves in Elbert county, Georgia, and educated at Atlanta University, Atlanta, and D. D. Allen University, Columbia, S.C.  He served in the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1876.   He was ordained in the African Methodist Episcopal Church ministry in 1879, became pastor of the Mount Zion A.M. E. Church in Charleston, S.C., and was elected bishop in 1904.  He was a minister in residence and consul-general to Liberia in 1898-1899.   He spent many years in Africa and presided over the 13th Episcopal District of the A.M.E. Church, a district that included the Gold Coast, Liberia, and Sierre Leone.   In 1887, Bishop Heard filed charges against a railroad company in Georgia after being removed from the first-class section of a passenger train upon arrival in Atlanta on a trip from Cincinnati (NYT, 3 July 1887; WWCA).
        6.  Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), Indian nationalist, was secretary of the Indian National Congress (1929-1938) and became the first prime minister of India (1947-1964).  His father, Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), was also an activist in the nationalist movement, a president of the Indian National Congress (in 1920), and founder of the nationalist paper, The Independent.   His daughter, Indira Nehru Gandhi, became prime minister of India in 1966 (Michael Edwardes, Nehru: A Political Biography [London: Penguin, 1971]; WBD).

The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, edited by Robert A. Hill (University of California Press 1983), vol. 7, pp. 781-787.
Marcus Garvey and Canada
By Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

This year 2017 marks the 130th birthday of Marcus Mosiah Garvey who was born in St. Ann’s Bay, on August 17, 1987.Garvey organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL)) The UNIA became the largest mass movement of African people in the history of the world. The first branch was organized in Jamaica in 1914 and the second, which was first in the United States, came in New York City in 1917.

Toronto’s Black community has taken notice of this historical event.  Political organizations such as the All African People’s Revolutionary Party will commemorate Garvey’s 130th birthday and the 100th anniversary of the founding of the UNIA in the USA.

Garvey’s UNIA was no stranger to Canada. “In Canada it entrenched itself coast to coast, from British Columbia to Nova Scotia,” as Garvey historian Tony Martin points out in his preface to the Course of African Philosophy. There were 35 branches of the UNIA in the Great White North.Garvey visited Toronto in 1919, 1928, 1936, 1937, and 1938 to meet with his North American followers.

Unlike Black nationalist groups in the 1960s and 70s the UNIA included women in membership and leadership. Dionne Brand,Governor General Award winner and Toronto’s third Poet Laureate pointed out, "Black Torontonians plunged into organizing – the women no less vigorously than the men."

The Eighth International Convention of the U.N.I.A. was held in Toronto from Aug.1 to 17 of 1938.

The late Lennie Johnston who co-owned Third World Books and Crafts with his wife Gwen Johnston told this writer:”Many of us went to work the next day and talked back to our white bosses and got fired. Garvey fired us up”, he said with a big laugh.

Natasha Henry of the Harriet Tubman Institute has documented this historical fact. Says Henry, “The first Canadian branch of the UNIA opened in 1918 in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. The Toronto branch opened up in 1919 and was visited by Garvey. By the early 1930s there were branches in the Maritimes, one in Montreal, Quebec, four in Ontario, three in Alberta, and two in British Columbia."

The group in Toronto was not “tribal” and reflected African internationalism. The UNIA was headquartered at 355 College St. The Barbados-born Donald Moore (1891-1994), one of the unsung heroes of Toronto’s Black community, discussed the creation of the movement in Toronto in his 1995 autobiography, Don Moore an Autobiography. Says Moore, “Contact was made with the UNIA’s headquarters in New York and arrangements were made to establish a branch in Toronto. Our first open meeting was held in the office of A. Ben Thomas, a Jamaican, who was elected the first president of the Toronto branch. William Otis, an American was treasurer, and I became secretary.”

In 1937 the School of African Philosophy was held for most of the month of September. Garvey put together 22 lessons in London and took them to Canada where from August 24th to 31st he conducted a regional conference for North American members of the U.N.I.A. The immediate purpose of this was to train a group of UNIA leaders to carry on his work after his death.

In Toronto, the UNIA existed for years after Garvey’s death in 1940. I can remember meeting Maurice Bishop at 355 College before the New Jewel Movement seized state power in 1979 in Grenada – peacefully. New Toronto based-groups continued to pay tribute to the St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica born Garvey. The Black Music Association (Toronto Chapter) presented A Tribute to Marcus Garvey, August 16th, 1987 at the Club Blue Note, 128 Pears Ave. That was Garvey’s centenary.

The BMA organized a Seminar & Show in honor of Garvey. The seminar featured Harry Gairey (The Godfather of Toronto’s Black Community). Gairey became a leading crusader against discrimination, helped in the 1950s to organize the Negro Citizenship Association, and worked for changes in Canada’s immigration laws. Gairey was a member of the Toronto branch of the UNIA. Also speaking was Milton Blake, Nana Kafefe, and Norman (Otis) Richmond. Jojo Chintoh of City TV was the moderator.

The show featured Itah Sadu (co-owner of A Different Booklist), Clifton Joseph, Carlton Harrison, Adrian "Sheriff" Miller, Jimmy Reid and Wally Richie. The BMA All Stars provided the music. For whatever it is worth Garvey in 1919 honeymooned in Toronto, Ontario and Montreal.Garvey married Amy Ashwood Garvey. His second wife Amy Jacques Garvey also honeymooned in Canada. This led to a lifelong battle between the two Amy’s. Amy Jacques Garvey Amy edited and published volume 2 of the Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey.

Garvey became an international icon. He influenced El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) and Ghana's first president. Kwame Nkrumah and Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.once remarked. “(Marcus) Garvey was the first man, on a mass scale to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny...”

Norman (Otis) Richmond, aka Jalali, was born in Arcadia, Louisiana, and grew up in Los Angeles. He left Los Angles after refusing to fight in Vietnam because he felt that, like the Vietnamese, Africans in the United States were colonial subjects. After leaving Los Angeles in the 1960s Richmond moved to Toronto, where he co-founded the Afro American Progressive Association, one of the first Black Power organizations in that part of the world. Before moving to Toronto permanently, Richmond worked with the Detroit-based League of Revolutionary Black Workers. He was the youngest member of the central staff. When the League split he joined the African People’s Party. In 1992, Richmond received the Toronto Arts Award. In front of an audience that included the mayor of Toronto, Richmond dedicated his award to Mumia Abu-Jamal, Assata Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, the African National Congress of South Africa, and Fidel Castro and the people of Cuba. In 1984 he co-founded the Toronto Chapter of the Black Music Association with Milton Blake. Richmond began his career in journalism at the African Canadian weekly Contrast which was owned by Al Hamilton. He went on to be published in the Toronto Star, the Toronto Globe & Mail, the National Post, the Jackson Advocate, Share, the Islander, the Black American, Pan African News Wire, and Black Agenda Report. Internationally he has written for the United Nations, the Jamaican Gleaner, the Nation (Barbados),the Nation (Sri Lanka), the Zimbabwe Herald and Pambazuka News. Currently, he produces Diasporic Music a radio show forhttp://blackpower96.org/ http://www.theburningspear.com/uhuru-radio and Radio Regent http://www.radioregent.com/ and writes a column, Diasporic Music for the Burning Spear Newspaper.

For more informantion norman.o.richmond@gmail.com
Richard B. Moore: “Dogs and Slaves Are Named by Their Masters; Free Men Name Themselves!" 
Norman (Otis) Richmond aka Jalali

This enemy that we call imperialism forces names and labels on us that are degrading. In 2017 this seems like much ado about nothing. This was BIG in 1960. Mary Francis Berry and John Blassingame thought this was a great issue as the 1960s begin. They pointed out in their volume, Long-Memory:The Black Experience in America, that this small volume was, “one of the most significant attacks on the term.” The term they were talking about was “Negro.”

The great Barbadian-born revolutionary Richard B. Moore (August 9, 1893-August 18, 1978) addressed this matter head on. Moore did so in his illuminating volume, The Name "Negro": Its Origin and Evil Use. He pounded into anyone’s head who would listen, “Dogs and slaves are named by their masters; free men name themselves!" This volume was self-published by Moore in 1960.

Moore connected the origin of the term “Negro” to the beginning of the slave trade. He shows how the term “Negro” was used to separate Africans and confirm their so-called inferiority.

I was blessed to hear Moore speak 50 years ago in Montreal in 1967 during Expo 1967. He shared the stage with Roy States, a Caribbean man based in Montreal. States was a bibliophile and long-time employee of McGill University. He was the supporting act for a 74 year-old Moore who was an impressive figure at that age.

African and Caribbean people should heed Moore’s call on the name question. We as African and Caribbean people have NO control over the corporate press in North American. However, we do have control of our own radio station and print media. We should not allow a bank or any foreign institution to name our historical events. Caribana came out of Carnival which was born in resistance. We cannot let down Charles Roach and the other ancestors who helped create Caribana.

Moore is part of the Black Radical Tradition and the late Austin Clarke talked about him in glowing terms in his memoir, ‘Membering. Clarke met Moore in 1963 when he was working for CBC radio. He was assigned to interview James Baldwin but ended up talking to El-Hajj Malik El Shabazz (Malcolm X) while he was still a member of Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam. He writes about how Moore petitioned the mayor of New York and the New York Times to stop using the term “Negro” to describe Africans in the United States.

Some would say Moore was not “all business”. Clarke wrote, “He would refuse to sell a book that a customer asked for if he felt it contained a history of African culture, in which he was interested.

“Mr. Moore lived in Brooklyn. In his bookstore on Lenox Avenue, there was hardly any room to move between the shelves. In his home, there was no room, either. Books, books, and more books.”

Moore has been overlooked by our youth even though his book, Richard B. Moore, Caribbean Militant in Harlem:Collected Writings 1920 -1972, has been published by Indiana University press. It tells the story of how Moore was born in Barbados in 1893 and immigrated to New York City at the age of 15 in 1909. After landing in the Big Apple he was influenced by the St. Croix-born socialist intellectual  Hubert H. Harrison, who the Jamaican-born self-educated historian J.A. Rogers (September 6, 1880 -March 26, 1966) described as ”the foremost Afro-American intellect of his time”.

The orator, writer Moore joined the African Blood Brotherhood (ABB) in 1919. The ABB participated in the Tulsa rebellion in 1921. Moore and many others from the ABB joined the Communist Party and he stayed until he was expelled in 1942 for being an African-American Nationalist. He considered Frederick Douglas the most important African leader in the USA. He published Douglas’ book, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglas in 1941. The book had been out of print for forty years. The next year he opened the Frederick Douglas Book Center.

After working in the USA since 1909 he visited Barbados in 1966 at the invitation of his long-time friend and Prime Minister Prime Minister Errol Barrow. Moore died in his homeland of Barbados in 1978 at the age of 85.

Moore should be remembered as a man who fought for the liberation of the Caribbean, Africa, and the oppressed generally.
Woman Arrested for Bringing Down Durham, N.C., Confederate Statue
BY JESSICA SCHLADEBECK
MEGAN CERULLO
NEW YORK DAILY NEWS
Wednesday, August 16, 2017, 12:33 AM

A North Carolina Central University student was arrested Tuesday after she admitted to climbing and helping pull down a Confederate statue in Durham, N.C., WRAL-TV reported.

Takiyah Thompson, a member of the Workers World Party, used a ladder to scale the podium, climb the statue, and help pull it down.

Protesters chanted, “We love you,” as deputies into her into a police cruiser during the arrest. She faces felony and misdemeanor riot and disorderly conduct charges for the stunt.

Later, singer Solange Knowles hailed 22-year-old Thompson as her “new hero” before deleting her Twitter account.

Andrews in a statement Tuesday morning said he was relieved no one was injured as protesters toppled the Confederate Soldiers monument on Monday.

“Collectively, we decided that restraint and public safety would be our priority. As the sheriff, I am not blind to the offensive conduct of some demonstrators nor will I ignore their criminal conduct,” he said.

He continued on to emphasize “racism and incivility” would not be allowed to continue in the county.

Protesters on Monday gathered outside the Durham County Courthouse. Several in the crowd climbed a ladder and used a yellow strap to pull down the Civil War monument, which they called a symbol of racism.

Boasting the inscription, “In memory of the boys who wore gray,” the Confederate Soldiers Monument in Durham County was dedicated in May 1924 and produced by the now-defunct McNeel Marble Company.

There are similar statues in Macon County, Ga., Alamance and Pasquotank counties in North Carolina as well outside government buildings in Arkansas and Virginia. The marble company, which was liquidated in 1965, is behind several other Confederate monuments across several Southern states.

Such statues have become points of controversy, capturing headlines in recent months as activist call for the removal of Confederate monuments on the grounds that they are symbols of hate and racism. They’ve received pushback from those who believe removing such monuments is an erasure of Southern history.

The incident in Durham County on Monday was in part sparked by the deadly white nationalist rally in Virginia over the weekend.

Thousands descended on the city of Charlottesville for a planned event scheduled Aug. 12 to protest the city council’s vote to remove a monument of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee from a public area. The memorial in Emancipation Park — recently renamed from Lee Park — was the site of a similar protest in May.
A Confederate Statue Is Torn Down And People Are Asking This Question
By Trey Ware
Jezebel
Aug 15, 2017 @ 4:43 AM

Sheriff deputies recorded but did not intervene as protesters in Durham, NC, pulled down a monument to a Confederate soldier last night.

Protesters circled the statue and shouted, “No cops! No KKK! No fascist USA!!!” then climbed the statute, placed a yellow cord around the soldier, and yanked it to the ground.

The statue was then kicked as the protesters danced and shouted for joy.

Eva Panjwani of the Workers World Party said, “Tactics are changing…our strategy needs to change.”

According to the Herald Sun paper, other groups involved included the Triangle People’s Assembly, Industrial Workers of the World, Democratic Socialists of America, and antifa.

Meanwhile, in Hillsborough County, FL, a Confederate memorial on private ground was splashed with red paint, and in Atlanta, GA, protesters chanted anti-Trump slogans as they danced around and spray-painted the statute of a Confederate soldier.

In Gainesville, Fl the city removed the bronze “Old Joe” which has stood outside the county admin building since 1904, and in Baltimore, MD, Mayor Catherine Pugh announced she will remove all Confederate monuments in her city.

E mailers and callers to the show are now asking what’s next?

Caller Bob wonders, “Once every statute is remove, and we have no more history – what then will they demand?”

TG emailed to say he believes the ultimate goal is the Constitution. “I mean, how can we possibly follow a piece of paper with rules written by wealthy slave owners who were all white men.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Arrests Begin Following Durham Confederate Statue Toppling
Moments after a press conference demanding amnesty for protesters, sheriff’s deputies arrested Taqiyah Thompson, who placed a rope around a Confederate monument Monday night.

David A. Graham
The Atlantic

DURHAM, N.C.—Sheriff’s deputies have begun arresting protesters who tore down a monument to Confederate veterans in front of the old Durham County courthouse Monday night.

Taqiyah Thompson, who climbed a ladder and put a rope around the statue before a crowd tugged it off its base, was arrested by deputies around 4:45 p.m., immediately following a press conference at North Carolina Central University, in which she had defended her actions and others demanded amnesty for all involved. A spokesperson for the sheriff’s office confirmed that deputies had begun executing warrants, but she did not immediately know how many.

“I did the right thing,” Thompson said during a Workers World Party press conference on the steps of a building at the historically black college. “Everyone who was there—the people did the right thing. The people will continue to keep making the right choices until every Confederate statue is gone, until white supremacy is gone. That statue is where it belongs. It needs to be in the garbage.”

Thompson was one of several speakers at the press conference. Loan Tran said the group was demanding amnesty for all those involved in the project, including that the sheriff’s office and district attorney drop all charges. They also wanted meetings with the county commission, and criticized Governor Roy Cooper, a Democrat, for his statement Monday night that summarily pulling down statues was the wrong way to deal with them.

“That statue glorifies the conditions that oppressed people live in and it had to go,” Thompson said.

Local officials have protested that they had no power to pull the statue down, even if they wanted to, citing a state law passed in 2015 that says no historical monuments can be permanently removed without permission from the state. But Tran said that excuse was unacceptable. She demanded that commissioners call for symbols to come down, and she said her group would work with them to discuss some ideas, though she didn’t say what.

The county’s response has been somewhat bifurcated. On the one hand, the county commission released a statement after the protest that condemned racism but neither mentioned the statue nor criticized its removal. Sheriff Mike Andrews, however, promised during a press conference earlier on Tuesday to bring felony charges against those who pulled the statue down. “Let me be clear, no one is getting away with what happened,” Andrews said.

Cooper, meanwhile, offered a more aggressive statement late Tuesday afternoon on Medium, demanding that the General Assembly repeal the law preventing removal of monuments.

“Cities, counties, and the state must have the authority and opportunity to make these decisions,” Cooper wrote. “Second, I’ve asked the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources to determine the cost and logistics of removing Confederate monuments from state property as well as alternatives for their placement at museums or historical sites where they can be studied in context.”

Cooper also said legislators should reject a bill, currently under consideration, that would grant immunity to drivers who strike protesters in streets.

Even as the WWP was holding its press conference, a whisper went around organizers as word of raids by officers spread. Not long afterward, Thompson was taken into custody by deputies and bundled into an unmarked car. Officers said they had a warrant but did not display it.

Moments earlier, Thompson had been arguing that today’s police are agents of white supremacy—in a lineage with Confederate soldiers, and in an alliance with the Ku Klux Klan.

“The statue in Durham, North Carolina, said ‘to the boys who wore the gray,’” she said. “If we understand history, we know that those boys who wore the gray, today they wear blue, and they wear sheets over their heads.”

David A. Graham
DAVID A. GRAHAM is a staff writer at The Atlantic, where he covers U.S. politics and global news.
Woman Charged With Felonies in Toppling of Confederate Statue in North Carolina, Sheriff Says
By Janell Ross and Alex Horton
Washington Post
August 15 at 10:20 PM

Protesters in Durham, N.C. toppled a statue called the Confederate Soldiers Monument on Aug. 14, as they chanted, "The people united shall never be defeated."

Durham County, N.C., officials said Tuesday they arrested a woman in connection with the vandalism and toppling of a Confederate statue in North Carolina.

A 22-year-old woman was charged with participation in a riot with property damaging exceeding $1,500 and inciting others to riot, which are felonies, Durham County Sheriff Mike Andrews said. She was also charged with two misdemeanor counts of damage to property and disorderly conduct by injury to a statue, CNN reported.

Andrews also said his office expects to make at least one additional arrest, and search warrants are ongoing, the report said.

“I am not blind to the offensive conduct of some demonstrators nor will I ignore their criminal conduct,” Andrews said in a written statement issued just after midnight Tuesday. “With the help of video captured at the scene, my investigators are working to identify those responsible for the removal and vandalism of the statue.”

Hours before, a crowd toppled a bronze Confederate soldier statue that stood in front of a county administrative building in downtown Durham as several dozen “anti-fascist” and community groups rallied. The groups gathered in Durham days after a Saturday rally in Charlottesville. At that gathering, James Alex Fields Jr., 20, allegedly drove a car into a crowd of protesters who had shown up to oppose a white supremacist gathering. Heather Heyer, 32, was killed and 19 others were injured. Fields has been charged with second-degree murder, hit and run, and three counts of malicious wounding. A former teacher described Fields as a Nazi sympathizer.

Images from Durham show that during what organizers there billed as an “emergency protest,” or a response to events in Charlottesville, an individual climbed a silver ladder on Monday evening and affixed a yellow strap to the head and neck of a bronze Confederate soldier figure. The strap was then pulled, causing the statue to somersault and hit the ground. A mangled bronze mass remained. People in the crowd cheered as some kicked the statue, spit on it and yelled.

The statue of a uniformed and armed Confederate soldier stood atop an engraved pedestal that read, “In memory of ‘the boys who wore the gray.’ ” It was erected in 1924 and stood 15 feet tall, according to a memorial database. On one side of the granite pedestal is an image of a Confederate flag.

At the time the statue was put in place, black residents could not vote or safely express a public opinion about placing a Confederate memorial on public land, use the same public facilities as whites and Asian immigrants, and could not legally become citizens of the United States. Durham County is now home to a population that is nearly 57 percent black, Latino and Asian. The city of Durham is more diverse than the county, and its politics are generally left- leaning. Most public offices are held by Democrats.

Durham County Commissioners Chairwoman Wendy Jacobs told the News & Observer that she had already directed county staff to begin researching the statue, how it came to be placed on public property, and state laws governing monuments before the Monday night incident. Calls and emails to the county’s public information office were not returned Tuesday morning.

In 2015, the North Carolina General Assembly barred local governments from removing any “object of remembrance” situated on public property. However, Monday night’s events drew a measured response from the state’s chief executive.

“The racism and deadly violence in Charlottesville is unacceptable but there is a better way to remove these monuments,” North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper (D) said via Twitter on Monday evening.

Groups at the rally where the statue was pulled down included members of the Triangle People’s Assembly, Workers World Party, Industrial Workers of the World, Democratic Socialists of America and the anti-fascist movement, the Herald-Sun reported.

Janell Ross covers race along with the social and political implications of the nation's rapidly changing demographics. Janell's Emerging America beat is part of the Washington Post's National Desk.  Follow @janellross

Alex Horton is a general assignment reporter for The Washington Post and a former Army infantryman.  Follow @AlexHortonTX
Mr. Trump Makes a Spectacle of Himself
By THE EDITORIAL BOARD
New York Times
AUG. 15, 2017

Here is one thing we are reminded of over and over about President Trump: The man simply cannot help himself — especially when cornered. Given one more chance to forcefully condemn the neo-Nazis and white supremacists whose rally in Charlottesville, Va., ended in violence and a counterprotester’s death, Mr. Trump angrily insisted, as he had suggested on Saturday, that both sides were equally to blame — a false equivalency that not just his critics but also an increasing number of his supporters have urged him to abandon.

The setting was a bizarre and contentious press conference at Trump Tower in Manhattan that was originally meant to be about infrastructure but quickly escalated into a shouting match about Charlottesville. Gone was the measured tone that the president’s aides had talked him into on Monday, when he said “racism is evil” and appeared to distance himself from his earlier claims about shared responsibility for the violence. In its place was a high-decibel defense of his original position, to which he added the claim that while there were “bad people” and “very fine people” on both sides, the “very, very violent” protesters on the “alt-left” who came “charging in without a permit” were at least as culpable as the neo-Nazi protesters.

In so doing, Mr. Trump took up many of the talking points of the white nationalists and far-right activists who have been complaining that the news media and the political establishment do not pay enough attention to leftists who call themselves anti-fascists. He also sympathized with the demonstrators’ demand — the announced reason for their rally — that Robert E. Lee’s statue in a Charlottesville park be saved. “Is it George Washington next week? And is it Thomas Jefferson the week after?” However deep their flaws, though, Washington and Jefferson are memorialized as heroes of American freedom, whereas Lee symbolizes violent division. It was hardly a surprise, then, that David Duke, the former Ku Klux Klan leader, tweeted to thank the president for his “honesty & courage” in denouncing “leftist terrorists.”

What is music to Mr. Duke’s ears is increasingly jarring to many conservatives, corporate executives and others who would be natural allies for a Republican president. Several business and labor leaders resigned from presidential advisory committees on Monday and Tuesday; Marco Rubio, a Trump-friendly senator, tweeted that the rally organizers were “100% to blame.”

Quick and unequivocal in his denunciations of anybody who dares to criticize him, be it Rosie O’Donnell or the executives leaving his advisory councils, Mr. Trump has repeatedly pulled his punches when it comes to white nationalists, alt-right activists and racists. During the presidential campaign last year, he disavowed Mr. Duke, who supported his candidacy, only under great pressure from other politicians and groups like the Anti-Defamation League.

Mr. Trump’s behavior has become distressingly unsurprising. His default position is retaliation; when threatened, he succumbs to bombast. Washington politicians had hoped the recent appointment of John Kelly, a retired Marine general, as his chief of staff would instill some discipline in his chaotic administration. With similar hopes, others are trying to get Mr. Trump to fire his resident provocateur, Stephen Bannon. But the root of the problem is not the personnel; it is the man at the top.
Are There White Nationalists in the White House?
By Louis Jacobson
PolitiFact
Tuesday, August 15th, 2017 at 4:47 p.m.

The "Unite the Right" march in Charlottesville has brought the issue of white nationalism to the top of the nation’s agenda -- specifically, whether white nationalists are part of the White House staff.

Remarks by liberal commentator Joy-Ann Reid on the Aug. 13 edition of NBC’s Meet the Press crystallized these questions. Reid, the host of MSNBC’s AM Joy, wondered whether Trump’s initial downplaying of white nationalists’ culpability stemmed from alt-right influence among his staff:

"Who's writing the talking points that he was looking down and reading from? He has people like Stephen Miller, claimed as a mentee by Richard Spencer, who is an avowed open white nationalist. He has Steve Bannon, who's been sort of allowed to … meld into … the normalcy of a governmental employee, but who ran Breitbart.com, which I reread today, the post that's still on their website, where they self-describe as the home of the alt-right.

"What is the alt-right? It is a dressed-up term for white nationalism. They call themselves white identitarianism. They say that the tribalism that's sort of inherent in the human spirit ought to be also applied to white people.

"That is who is in his government. Sebastian Gorka, who wore the medal of Vitézi Rend, a Nazi organization, being paid by the taxpayer, in the government of Donald Trump. The former Publius Decius blogger Michael Anton in the government.

"He is surrounded by these people. It isn't both sides. He's in the White House -- they're in the White House with him."

Fellow panelist Rich Lowry, who edits the conservative National Review, which has taken strong exception to Trump, pushed back.

"I want the alt-right to be as limited as possible -- I want it to go away and die -- but you aren't doing folks on my side any favors by defining it so widely that it includes Stephen Miller and Mike Anton," Lowry said on the show. "That's what they want. You're helping them by defining it so widely."

It’s important to note that Reid did not explicitly accuse any of the four individuals she named of being white nationalists or alt-right members per se. But she suggested that the four were sympathetic to people who do fall into that category.

We decided to take a closer look. Because of the complexities of this issue, and because some of the evidence is in dispute, we’re not applying a Truth-O-Meter rating to Reid’s comments.

First, we’ll look at the general question of defining the alt-right and white nationalism. Then we’ll look at the four specific individuals Reid cited, and weigh her evidence. The White House and Reid shared evidence that we have included in the analysis below.

What is white nationalism?

The boundaries, and degree of overlap, between the alt-right, white nationalists, and older white supremacist groups such as the KKK or neo-Nazis -- all of which had a presence in the Charlottesville march -- is debated territory.

Two anti-extremist groups, the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center, offer similar definitions that differ somewhat in wording.

The ADL calls white nationalism "a term used by white supremacists as a euphemism for white supremacy," while the SPLC calls it the belief in "a white nation for and run by whites. White nationalists believe race and IQ are related and that black people are inherently inferior in IQ."

Meanwhile, SPLC calls the alt-right "a recent rebranding of white nationalism," while the ADL calls it "a loose network of people who promote white identity and reject mainstream conservatism in favor of politics that embrace implicit or explicit racism, anti-Semitism and white supremacy."

The reality is that "there is no agreed-upon definition of the borders between these groups," said Joshua Green, author of Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency, which delved into questions about the alt-right and Trump’s presidential campaign. "I think most people make their judgments in much the same way that Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart explained his definition of obscenity: ‘I know it when I see it.’ "

Thomas J. Main, a professor at Baruch College-CUNY and author of the forthcoming book Rise of the Alt-Right, said the defining characteristic of white nationalists is "anyone who boldly steps forward and says that all people are not created equal," particularly on the question of whose voice should be counted in the political sphere.

Often, the main differences between various categories "are matters of style and tactics," said Nicole Hemmer, a University of Virginia professor and author of Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics.

Neo-Nazis, for their part, typically rely on the imagery of Nazi Germany, while neo-Confederates focus instead on imagery of the Confederacy.

To Hemmer, one of the most notable aspects of the alt-right is that it "has largely emerged online," and that "the alt-right positions itself as a response to political correctness, arguing that the aggressive defense of white rights and men's rights is a byproduct of liberal identity politics."

When political scientist Carol Swain was researching her 2002 book, The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration, she noticed the beginnings of today’s alt-right.

"They were well-educated, and they did not espouse public violence in interviews and did not use racial epithets," said Swain, who is African-American and who has spoken out against political correctness on campus. "But they felt like there were racial double standards and they felt that white people were discriminated against."

Miller, a former aide to then-Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-Ala. -- now Trump’s attorney general -- currently serves as senior adviser for policy in the White House and has periodically represented the administration on television. His key issue -- and Sessions’ -- has historically been immigration, namely tightening it.

In describing Miller, Reid has carefully chosen her words.

For starters, experts we checked with agreed that Richard Spencer, who heads a group called the National Policy Institute, is fairly categorized as a white nationalist.

Media outlets including Vanity Fair have noted that Spencer, at a 2016 alt-right conference, said, "To be white is to be a striver, a crusader, an explorer and a conqueror. We build, we produce, we go upward. And we recognize a central lie of American race relations. We don’t exploit other groups -- we don’t gain anything from their presence. They need us, and not the other way around. ... America was, until this past generation, a white country, designed for ourselves and our posterity. It is our creation, it is our inheritance, and it belongs to us."

Reid is also correct that Miller was "claimed as a mentee" by Spencer.

According to Vanity Fair, Spencer says he became aware of Miller when both were at Duke University and was "impressed" with his communications ability.

"Being a few years older and in graduate school, Spencer says, he mentored Miller. ‘But I do think that Stephen probably would’ve ended up exactly more or less where he is today whether he had met me or not,’ he adds. ‘He is his own man. ... He is a strong American nationalist, you could say. Certainly not a white nationalist, but he is an American nationalist and a civic nationalist or a public nationalist."

However, Reid’s telling leaves out that Miller has aggressively disputed Spencer’s account. The Vanity Fair article added that Miller emailed Mother Jones in October 2016 that "I have absolutely no relationship with Mr. Spencer. I completely repudiate his views, and his claims are 100 percent false."

Green said Miller told him the same thing as he was researching his book on Bannon.

Bannon, a senior counselor to the president, did previously run Breitbart.com before joining the Trump presidential campaign. And he did tell Mother Jones, "We’re the platform for the alt-right," during an interview at the 2016 Republican National Convention.

But Reid incorrectly attributed that sentiment to an article on the Breitbart site, "An Establishment Conservative’s Guide To The Alt-Right," authored by Allum Bokhari and Milo Yiannopoulos. That piece -- while controversial -- is a March 2016 taxonomy of the various corners of the movement, not a manifesto of Breitbart’s place in it.

Bannon has sought to offer a more nuanced definition of his views. In his book about Bannon, Green understood his term "platform" to mean a meeting place for a broad cross section of the right -- one that ranges from relatively mainstream to relatively fringe.

"Asked at the 2014 Vatican conference about the racist element found in many far-right parties, Bannon replied that ‘over time it all gets kind of washed out,’ " Green wrote. "He seemed to regard it as an unavoidable evil, a kind of way station on the path to populist triumph. ‘When you look at any kind of revolution -- and this is a revolution -- you always have some groups that are disparate,’ he’d said. ‘I think that will all burn away over time and you’ll see more of a mainstream center-right populist movement.’ "

Green said that Bannon (and Miller) "have made impassioned arguments to me that the policies they espouse, including the deportation of undocumented immigrants, would have beneficial effects for blacks and Hispanics." Bannon also denied that the alt-right is racist in his Mother Jones interview.

"He describes its ideology as ‘nationalist,’ though not necessarily white nationalist," the article said. "Likening its approach to that of European nationalist parties such as France’s National Front, he says, ‘If you look at the identity movements over there in Europe, I think a lot of (them) are really "Polish identity" or "German identity," not racial identity. It’s more identity toward a nation-state or their people as a nation.’ "

Gorka serves as deputy assistant to the president and also appears on television to represent the administration. But Gorka has attracted controversy for, among other things, wearing symbols of a successor group to Vitézi Rend, an honorary order that had originally been founded in 1920 by Miklós Horthy, a Hungarian ally of Adolf Hitler.

To say that Gorka "wore the medal of Vitézi Rend" is accurate. However, calling today’s incarnation of the group specifically "a Nazi organization" is in dispute.

Gorka’s father was jailed and sentenced to forced labor by Hungary’s Soviet-aligned government during the Cold War, and he later received an honor from the successor group for his anti-Communist activities. At times, Gorka has worn a medal of the group, including at Trump’s inauguration. Gorka has said the medal merely honors his father. (Gorka was born in London after his parents emigrated there.)

Reporting by the Jewish publication the Forward suggested that Gorka’s ties to the group went further -- that he had sworn a lifetime oath. The Forward also reported that from "2002 to 2007, while he was active in Hungarian politics and journalism … he had close ties then to Hungarian far-right circles, and has in the past chosen to work with openly racist and anti-Semitic groups and public figures."

Gorka has forcefully denied any sympathies for Nazism, and he took issue with the Forward’s reporting and inferences.

He told Tablet, another Jewish magazine, "I have never been a member of the Vitézi Rend. I have never taken an oath of loyalty to the Vitézi Rend. Since childhood, I have occasionally worn my father’s medal and used the ‘v.’ initial to honor his struggle against totalitarianism."

Gorka rejected an NBC investigation of the issue and said he had "completely distanced" himself from white supremacist and Nazi ideology groups.

‘The former Publius Decius blogger Michael Anton’ is on Trump’s staff
Anton is easily the least-known figure of the four Reid mentioned. He serves as director of strategic communications at the National Security Council.

After he joined the White House staff, it was revealed that Anton was the writer behind a series of opinion pieces that had been signed "Publius Decius Mus," named after a fallen consul in ancient Rome. They were considered a form of intellectual ballast for Trump at a time when few conservative academics were in his corner.

Portions of the Publius Decius Mus column titled "Toward a Sensible, Coherent Trumpism" do address themes common of the alt-right, including racial politics:

"In their hearts, nearly all ‘conservatives’ long for absolution on the charge of ‘racism.’ Like the atheist caricature of the devout husband guilt-wracked for coveting his own wife, the modern conservative believes the leftist lie that his natural affinity for people who look, think and speak like himself is shameful and illegitimate, to be internally repressed and publicly denied."

Later, the article says, "Yes, it is true that ‘all men are created equal.’ But Lincoln adds the crucial caveat: All men are not ‘equal in all respects’ (emphasis in the original). They are not ‘equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments or social capacity.’ People from different nations with different circumstances, histories, beliefs and traditions will — by definition — hold very different conceptions of good government, some irreconcilably opposed to our own."

So, Anton was Publius Decius Mus, as Reid said. But the significance of one’s anonymous blogging is open to debate.

Are any of these four officials white nationalists?

When we asked this question of several independent experts, they all agreed that none of the four were white nationalists themselves. However, several said that they had placed themselves uncomfortably close to white nationalists.

Aryeh Tuchman, associate director of the Anti-Defamation League’s Center on Extremism, told PolitiFact "we would not consider" any of the four to be white nationalists.

George Hawley, a University of Alabama political scientist and author of the forthcoming book, Making Sense of the Alt-Right, said he "would probably not describe any high-ranking White House officials as white nationalists." He added, however, that "important members of the Trump administration can definitely be described as right-wing populists and nativists. These are ideological stances that deserve criticism, but white nationalism is a much more extreme ideology."

Bannon does try to "maintain the appearance that the particular entity he’s referring to is the nation, rather than a race," said Main of Baruch College. "Do I think that’s a tremendous improvement? Not really. But I think it’s a distinction that has to be made."

And Hemmer, the University of Virginia professor, said the term she would use is "white nationalist-adjacent. Their biographies and rhetoric signal to white nationalists that they have friends in the White House. Put another way, they're not Richard Spencers or David Dukes, but they make the Richard Spencers and David Dukes feel more comfortable with the administration."

Indeed, as the New York Times noted in December 2016, "While he does not consider either Mr. Trump or Mr. Bannon alt-right, Mr. Spencer has expressed hope that the press’s describing them as such will help his own group grow."
DOJ Demands Files On Anti-Trump Activists, And A Web Hosting Company Resists
August 15, 20179:10 PM ET
National Public Radio
LAUREL WAMSLEY

The Department of Justice has issued a warrant for a web hosting company to turn over all records related to the website of #DisruptJ20, a group that organized actions to disrupt President Trump's inauguration in January.

At the intersection where protections against unreasonable search and seizure meet the rights to free speech and association, there's now a web hosting company called DreamHost.

The California-based company is resisting a Department of Justice warrant that demands it hand over all files related to DisruptJ20.org, a website created by one of its customers to plan and announce actions intended to disrupt President Trump's inauguration.

After Inauguration Day protests in Washington, D.C. turned violent, 230 people were arrested and charged with felony rioting.

In gathering evidence for the nearly 200 still-open cases in D.C. court, the Justice Department issued a warrant that DreamHost says is so broad it would require handing over the logs of 1.3 million visits to the website.

The company called the warrant "a highly untargeted demand that chills free association and the right of free speech afforded by the Constitution. ... This is, in our opinion, a strong example of investigatory overreach and a clear abuse of government authority."

A week after the inauguration, DreamHost says the Justice Department asked it for records relating to the person who had registered the site - such as the person's physical and email addresses - and it complied.

But in July, the government issued a new warrant that asked for additional materials: "all files, databases, and database records" related to DisruptJ20's website, as prosecutors moved to seize all information "involving the individuals who participated, planed [sic], organized, or incited the January 20 riot."

DreamHost resisted providing the newly-requested information, citing concerns that the warrant was "overbroad" and may result in "overseizure."

But the Justice Department said DreamHost must provide the information regardless.

"DreamHost's opinion of the breadth of the warrant does not provide it with a basis for refusing to comply with the Court's search warrant and begin an immediate production," U.S. Attorney Channing Phillips wrote in a motion to the D.C. Superior Court, which will soon hold a hearing regarding the matter.

In its filing with the court, DreamHost says the warrant requires the company "to turn over every piece of information it has about every visitor to a website expressing political views concerning the current administration":

"This information includes the IP address for the visitor, the website pages viewed by the visitor, even a detailed description of software running in the visitor's computer. In essence, the Search Warrant not only aims to identify the political dissidents of the current administration, but attempts to identify and understand what content each of these dissidents viewed on the website. The Search Warrant also includes a demand that DreamHost disclose the content of all e-mail inquiries and comments submitted from numerous private e-mail accounts and prompted by the website, all through a single sweeping warrant."

The Justice Department told NPR it won't comment on the case aside from the court filings.

Is the government really asking for all those visitor logs?

"Yes, they definitely are," says Electronic Frontier Foundation senior staff attorney Mark Rumold. EFF advocates for internet privacy and free speech, and has advised DreamHost in its case.

Rumold tells NPR that when DreamHost first approached EFF about responding to the warrant, he guessed "that DOJ would realize how broad the warrant was, and say, oh you know, in fact we're not actually looking for IP logs for everyone who's ever visited the site," and would narrow its request accordingly.

But instead, the government insisted on DreamHost's compliance with the warrant as written.

"It always raises red flags when the government is trying to pry into the organization or the association of its political opponents," Rumold says. "That said, the DOJ has apparently demonstrated to a judge that there is probable cause to believe that something on this site is evidence of a crime." But, he says, the logs of everyone who ever visited the site, along with when and where they viewed it — "there's no way that that's all evidence of a crime."

"It's always troubling when the government seizes far more information than it could ever use," he says. "That's just generally a problem regardless of the investigation. I think what's particularly unique about this case is that the crime and the topic that is being investigated is a group of people who are politically opposed to the president."

For administrators of websites that involve political dissent or discussion, Rumold says best practices would dictate not keeping logs of visitor data.

And Legba Carrefour, who was one of the organizers for DisruptJ20, says the site's administrators didn't keep this data for DisruptJ20.org—DreamHost did.

"We would not keep records on who visits our website," Carrefour told NPR. "We don't want to know, and we don't care. But also I'm sure like half of those are probably cops," checking to see what the group had planned for the inauguration.

Carrefour said DisruptJ20 used what's called "the open organizing model": Instead of making plans in secret, they posted everything they intended to do right on their website. They held biweekly meetings to audiences of 200 or 300 people at a time, in places like church basements, which he assumes police attended. "We feel like open organizing is a better way to recruit people, and also sort of a more honest, forthright, and successful way of organizing mass mobilizations."

Carrefour said he was "surprised and impressed" that DreamHost is "going to the lengths they are to resist" the government's request.

DreamHost says its stance isn't a political one.

"This has become a political issue for many - but our interest in this case truly isn't that specific," DreamHost spokesman Brett Dunst wrote in an email to NPR. "We're completely content-agnostic in this. For DreamHost this is simply an over-broad request for records, and we feel obligated to contest it."

He said DreamHost keeps server logs in order to manage the sites of its 400,000-plus customers and identify issues like Distributed Denial of Service attacks.

"We only retain those logs for a very brief time," Dunst wrote. "The DOJ served us with a preservation notice immediately after the inauguration, which is why we still have access to that data in this case."

The Justice Department's demand for the logs has troubling implications, says Georgetown University law professor Paul Ohm, who formerly worked as an attorney in the Department of Justice's Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section.

"It's disturbing to me," Ohm tells NPR, "that with a single warrant, signed by a single judge — especially given the speech implications of this particular website — it's disturbing to me that that could be the single key that unlocks the political and speech habits of I-don't-know-how-many-people."

He estimated that 1.3 million visitor logs could represent thousands of people, or hundreds of thousands. And he said that the framers of the U.S. Constitution specifically wanted to avoid practices like British general warrants, which gave sweeping access to search any location with a single piece of paper.

"This smells like a general warrant," says Ohm. "I think the framers would recognize a single request to get the reading habits of tens of thousands of people to essentially be the closest thing we have in modern times to a general warrant."

Ohm says courts have often considered how rights against illegal search and seizure begin to overlap with free speech rights – and "this case is tailor-made to sit at that intersection."

"This site is about speech. It's about listening, which is also kind of a First Amendment right," he says. "It's about assembly. It's about petitioning the government. And so I think it's not going to be hard for the lawyers in this case to say this isn't just about policing and the limits of policing. This is about disruption of speech. And so for all those reasons, it really raises the stakes on this particular litigation and it means it's going to get a close look from the courts."
Arrests Begin Following Durham Confederate Statue Toppling
Moments after a press conference demanding amnesty for protesters, sheriff’s deputies arrested Taqiyah Thompson, who placed a rope around a Confederate monument Monday night.

David A. Graham
The Atlantic

DURHAM, N.C.—Sheriff’s deputies have begun arresting protesters who tore down a monument to Confederate veterans in front of the old Durham County courthouse Monday night.

Taqiyah Thompson, who climbed a ladder and put a rope around the statue before a crowd tugged it off its base, was arrested by deputies around 4:45 p.m., immediately following a press conference at North Carolina Central University, in which she had defended her actions and others demanded amnesty for all involved. A spokesperson for the sheriff’s office confirmed that deputies had begun executing warrants, but she did not immediately know how many.

“I did the right thing,” Thompson said during a Workers World Party press conference on the steps of a building at the historically black college. “Everyone who was there—the people did the right thing. The people will continue to keep making the right choices until every Confederate statue is gone, until white supremacy is gone. That statue is where it belongs. It needs to be in the garbage.”

Thompson was one of several speakers at the press conference. Loan Tran said the group was demanding amnesty for all those involved in the project, including that the sheriff’s office and district attorney drop all charges. They also wanted meetings with the county commission, and criticized Governor Roy Cooper, a Democrat, for his statement Monday night that summarily pulling down statues was the wrong way to deal with them.

“That statue glorifies the conditions that oppressed people live in and it had to go,” Thompson said.

Local officials have protested that they had no power to pull the statue down, even if they wanted to, citing a state law passed in 2015 that says no historical monuments can be permanently removed without permission from the state. But Tran said that excuse was unacceptable. She demanded that commissioners call for symbols to come down, and she said her group would work with them to discuss some ideas, though she didn’t say what.

The county’s response has been somewhat bifurcated. On the one hand, the county commission released a statement after the protest that condemned racism but neither mentioned the statue nor criticized its removal. Sheriff Mike Andrews, however, promised during a press conference earlier on Tuesday to bring felony charges against those who pulled the statue down. “Let me be clear, no one is getting away with what happened,” Andrews said.

Cooper, meanwhile, offered a more aggressive statement late Tuesday afternoon on Medium, demanding that the General Assembly repeal the law preventing removal of monuments.

“Cities, counties, and the state must have the authority and opportunity to make these decisions,” Cooper wrote. “Second, I’ve asked the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources to determine the cost and logistics of removing Confederate monuments from state property as well as alternatives for their placement at museums or historical sites where they can be studied in context.”

Cooper also said legislators should reject a bill, currently under consideration, that would grant immunity to drivers who strike protesters in streets.

Even as the WWP was holding its press conference, a whisper went around organizers as word of raids by officers spread. Not long afterward, Thompson was taken into custody by deputies and bundled into an unmarked car. Officers said they had a warrant but did not display it.

Moments earlier, Thompson had been arguing that today’s police are agents of white supremacy—in a lineage with Confederate soldiers, and in an alliance with the Ku Klux Klan.

“The statue in Durham, North Carolina, said ‘to the boys who wore the gray,’” she said. “If we understand history, we know that those boys who wore the gray, today they wear blue, and they wear sheets over their heads.”

David A. Graham
DAVID A. GRAHAM is a staff writer at The Atlantic, where he covers U.S. politics and global news.
Donald Trump, from His Tower, Rages at “the Other Side” in Charlottesville
By Amy Davidson Sorkin
The New Yorker
9:23 P.M.

At a press briefing that was supposed to be about infrastructure, Trump tossed aside his previous condemnation of white nationalists like an ill-fitting suit.Photograph by Pablo Martinez Monsivais / AP

“Wait a minute, I’m not finished. I’m not finished, Fake News,” President Donald Trump said at a press conference, on Tuesday. He was using fake news as an epithet, directed at a reporter who had asked about Senator John McCain’s admonition about the wider influence of “alt-right” forces, which McCain had connected to the “Unite the Right” rally that, with its white-nationalist and neo-Nazi displays, had set off a weekend of violence in Charlottesville, Virginia. Trump began by asking if the reporter was talking about the same Senator McCain who had voted against his side on Obamacare, and then continued by asking, “What about the alt-left that came charging at the, as you say, the alt-right? Do they have any semblance of guilt? Let me ask you this: What about the fact that they came charging with clubs in their hands, swinging clubs, do they have any problem? I think they do.” This was a repeat of the first comment he had made, on Saturday, in reaction to Charlottesville, placing undifferentiated blame on “many sides,” never mind the swastikas. He had revised that, on Monday, with a grudgingly delivered statement of what ought to have been obvious: that white supremacy and Nazism are bad ideologies. Now, in a couple of lines, he had tossed that aside, like an ill-fitting suit. But, as he said, he wasn’t finished. Trump kept talking, in louder, uglier terms.

“You had a group on one side that was bad and you had a group on the other side that was also very violent. And nobody wants to say that. But I’ll say that right now.” The bad group was the white nationalists; the “very violent” group was those who had come to object. In case anyone missed his point, he continued, “You had a group on the other side that came charging in—without a permit—and they were very, very violent.” Trump wasn’t putting the two sides on the same level; he was saying that the counter-protesters were worse.

His outrage at the counter-protesters’ lack of a permit stood out all the more, given that he had spent the beginning of the briefing, which was meant to be about infrastructure and was held in the lobby of Trump Tower, complaining about how permits slowed down him and other builders. He promised to do away with as many as he could. Not that he had ever been held back; he knew how to get the permits he needed. That was one of the instances in the press conference when his native narcissism caused him to ramble; another was when he began talking about how he’d heard that “the young woman”—Heather Heyer, age thirty-two—who was among the counter-protesters and was killed when someone drove a car into their ranks, was a fine person, and that the person charged with killing her had done something “horrible,” but he ended up just going on about how her mother had said “the nicest things” about him, Trump. The media, he said, didn’t appreciate his niceness. (Later, Trump acknowledged that he had not yet reached out to Heyer’s family.)

As this story has played out, what has been striking is how put upon the President has seemed to feel when asked to condemn neo-Nazis. At the press conference, he kept insisting that this was a matter of being responsible—all the facts weren’t in yet. All the facts still aren’t in, but the swastikas and the Confederate flags were out from the first moment. The only way Trump wouldn’t have seen them is if he didn’t want to or didn’t care, or perhaps he viewed them with political opportunism, emblems of a base to be catered to. All those explanations—that he is indifferent; that he is calculating—remain on the table. The press conference added another possibility: that his judgment is, and perhaps always will be, consumed by his own sense of resentment. When he realized that his statement on Monday had been found wanting, he tweeted, “Made additional remarks on Charlottesville and realize once again that the News Media will never be satisfied . . . truly bad people!” ‬

On Tuesday, that media wanted to know if Trump was, as one reporter put it, saying that the alt-left was “the same” as neo-Nazis. Trump erupted again. “I’ve condemned neo-Nazis. I’ve condemned many different groups,” he said. “But not all of those people were neo-Nazis. Believe me. Not all of those people were white supremacists. By any stretch.” He continued, “Those people were also there because they wanted to protest the taking down of the statue of Robert E. Lee.” He said that if the press were honest—“which in many cases you’re not”—they would see it his way. And, he added, with a note of dismay, “This week it’s Robert E. Lee, and I notice that Stonewall Jackson is coming down. I wonder, is it George Washington next week, and is it Thomas Jefferson the week after? Ask yourself, where does it stop?”

One might note that Robert E. Lee took up arms against the United States government, the one that George Washington put his life on the line to build. It is true that our history is full of figures who are flawed, but endure. Lee, though, is not a symbol of our values whose life does not match the ideals he is purported to embody; he is a symbol of the betrayal of those ideals. He is our worse self. And if there is not a constant conversation challenging our idols—an effort to look for our better angels, to borrow Lincoln’s phrase—if statues never come down, or new ones stop going up, then we have, in some way, stopped trying to be a more perfect Union. The organizers of the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville had not gathered out of some architectural-preservationist urge: they were there for ideological reasons.

Trump acknowledged, again, that some of those people were bad, but he also said, again, “You also had people that were very fine people—on both sides . . . you had people in that group who were there to protest the taking down of, to them, a very, very important statue and the renaming of a park from Robert E. Lee to another name.” Trump didn’t pause to ask why the statue of Robert E. Lee would be so very, very important, nor did he mention the other name: Emancipation Park. Instead, he had reduced a moral crossroads for the country to a question of naming rights. Standing in front of reporters, Trump came across as an angry man sheltered by a building bearing his own name in big, gold letters. But for how long? Tenants in some buildings have already asked to have the “Trump” taken off. Where would it stop? Would there, perhaps, never even be a statue of Donald J. Trump?

Amy Davidson Sorkin is a New Yorker staff writer. She is a regular Comment contributor for the magazine and writes a Web column, in which she covers war, sports, and everything in between.